I need support with this Asian Studies question so I can learn better. Write a review of the reading Marcus and Chen Inside Outside Chinatown Requirements: 250+ | .doc fileATTACHMENTSmarcus_and_chen_inside_outside_chinatown.pdf
Power Point Presentation;. Internet Connection Sharing (ICS):
Conquering the Minefield of
Soft Rogue APs in the Enterprise
A Whitepaper by AirTight Networks
© 2010 AirTight Networks, Inc 2/6
Conquering the Minefield of Soft Rogue APs in the Enterprise
Dr. Hemant Chaskar
Director of Technology, AirTight Networks
A soft access point (AP) is a laptop or other wireless enabled device which
performs traffic forwarding between its wireless interface and some other interface
which is connected to the secure network. A soft AP can show up as rogue access
point on the enterprise network. This can happen inadvertently, for example, when
an employee has used a company owned laptop as an AP to share Internet
connection at home and later forgets to disable the sharing. A soft AP can,
however, be maliciously installed as it is perfect hacker “solution” to put a rogue AP
on a network while evading wire-side controls such as 802.1x, NACs and wireside-
only rogue AP scanners.
Recently, soft APs increasingly have been found in enterprise networks. One main
reason behind this is the ease with which end user devices enable soft AP
configuration on embedded WiFi interfaces. In most cases, only couple of clicks is
what it takes to enable soft AP on the end user device. Notably, while conventional
rogue APs required bringing in unmanaged hardware such as home grade WiFi
router into the enterprise, soft APs are embedded already in the end user devices.
This paper reviews some of the commonly found ways to convert WiFi enabled
devices into soft APs. Here Windows OS is used as example, but similar
configurations can also be done on many end user devices including the handheld
devices such as PDAs and smart phones. The paper also suggests what steps you
can take to protect your network from soft AP threats.
© 2010 AirTight Networks, Inc 3/6
Commonly Found Soft AP Configurations
The following are some commonly found soft AP configurations.
1. Windows Network Bridge:
A network bridge can be created between the wired Ethernet interface and the
wireless WiFi interface of a Windows laptop. If the wired Ethernet interface is
connected to the enterprise network, the network can be accessed by intruders
from outside of premises who connect wirelessly to the WiFi interface. The
intruders will have layer 2 access to the enterprise network.
2. Internet Connection Sharing (ICS):
© 2010 AirTight Networks, Inc 4/6
When Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) is enabled on a Windows laptop, a routing
(NAT) service is created between its wired Ethernet interface and wireless WiFi
interface. If the wired Ethernet interface is connected to enterprise network, the
network can be accessed by an intruder from outside of the premises by wirelessly
connecting to the WiFi interface. The intruder will have layer 3 access to the
3. Add-on Devices on Laptop:
External devices can be connected to the laptop to turn it into a soft AP. For
example, USB devices such as Windy31 and PCMCIA cards such as WP1200, are
available and can act as wireless access points when plugged into the laptop.
Devices such as Windy31 also come built in with AP software which auto-installs
when the device is plugged into the laptop. The WiFi AP running on such devices
can bridge or route traffic to the wired network through the laptop.
4. Virtual WiFi Interfaces (Windows 7):
Windows 7 has introduced the virtual WiFi interfaces feature. This feature enables
a single radio interface on the device to act as multiple WiFi devices
simultaneously. Software tools such as “connectify” are available to enable both
client and AP simultaneously on the radio interface of the Windows 7 laptop. If
such radio interface is connected to enterprise network as authorized corporate
© 2010 AirTight Networks, Inc 5/6
WiFi client, unauthorized users from outside of the premises can connect to the AP
operating on the same radio interface and then access the enterprise network.
Soft APs on Handheld Devices
The virtual interfaces mark a significant development as they extend soft AP threat
from laptops to handheld devices. The handheld devices typically do not have
wired Ethernet interface, so the first three methods are generally not applicable to
them. However, with the advent of virtual interfaces, it is now possible to use a
WiFi radio in the handheld device to simultaneously act as authorized corporate
WiFi client and unauthorized soft WiFi AP.
© 2010 AirTight Networks, Inc 6/6
Protection from Soft APs
Since it is so easy to convert end user laptops and WiFi enabled handheld devices
into soft rogue APs, enterprises need to be continuously monitoring to understand
if any soft APs are present on their networks.
Monitoring for soft APs requires wireless scanning tools such as wireless intrusion
prevention system (WIPS) comprising of wireless monitoring sensors. WIPS
sensors can continuously track the wireless activity of end user devices and detect
soft AP activity. They can also block soft AP activity over the air.
While there are many WIPS offerings available in the market, it is essential to
evaluate if they can provide protection against all scenarios of soft APs, before
installing them in your network. AirTight Networks offers SpectraGuard® Enterprise
overlay WIPS which is capable of protecting against all types of soft AP activity due
to its unique active classification™ technology enabled by patented marker packet
techniques. It is also worth noting that WIPS also provides protection from many
other WiFi threats such as conventional rogue APs, mis-associations, ad hoc
connections, WiPhishing, wireless DoS attacks etc. (which are not discussed in this
paper), helps meet compliance requirements (e.g., PCI, HIPAA etc.), and also
provides performance monitoring and troubleshooting for the WLAN.
For more information on WiFi security, WIPS and AirTight Networks, please visit
www.airtightnetworks.com. You can also review recorded webinar on this topic of
soft rogue APs at https://admin.acrobat.com/_a1013426351/p54357857/.
SpectraGuard® Enterprise Wireless Intrusion Prevention