Linguistics question for phonemes, allophones, phonological rules

Take a look at the following data from a made-up language. This time, pay attention to the phones [s] and [z]. Then use this data to answer questions 1-3 below:

azaga “child”ambuza “brother”istaga “road”saraga “house”alapas “horse”anadsi “tree”leguza “city”ilugsu “island”muzuri “friend”tizupa “morning”dizi “water”alnu “wind”anbuza “sister”amadsi “chicken”sibus “mountain”smali “sun”ibats “sky”amti “dog”


  1. State whether [s] and [z] are allophones of the same phoneme or of different phonemes.
  2. If they are allophones of different phonemes, provide one example of a minimal pair which demonstrates this.
  3. If they are allophones of the same phoneme, state which one is the underlying allophone and which one is the derived allophone. (You can say this in plain words, you don’t need to make a tree diagram.) Then write a simple rule which describes this allophony using the notation (Ex: [underlying phoneme] –> [what it turns into]/[the environment where it happens].Make sure you use natural classes wherever possible when writing the rule. You can write “V” instead “vowel” or “vowels” and you can write “C” for “consonant” or “consonants”.
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