Differentiating invasive from non-invasive metabolic threshold detection



1. To identify the metabolic threshold of a subject using both invasive and non-invasive detection methods (specifically using blood lactate measurement and gas analysis respectively).

2. To assess the differences between these methods and to identify the strengths and weakness of both.

Write up

You are expected to complete a lab report (2,500 words ± 10%) based on your results. This should include FIVE sections:

1. Introduction (25%)

In this section you should introduce the reader to the area of interest. In this coursework, the area is:

i. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max)

ii. Metabolic threshold

iii. The ‘V slope’ method

iv. Blood lactate testing

v. Incremental exercise testing.

Define each and state the relevance of each to the field of athlete testing – what does an athlete gain from these tests. Give an example of the type of athlete who benefits from this test. Reference journal articles which have performed similar tests describing what they found. Use a funnel approach for the introduction (start broad and finish with the specific Aim(s) of your study, stating exactly what you will be doing).

2. Methods (20%).

In this section you should describe precisely how data were collected. You should NOT include any results in this section. You should NOT include any references in this section without very good reason. Typically, V̇O2max is reported in relative units (ml∙kg-1∙min-1). Suggested sub-headings are:  Subject data  Environmental data  Protocol  Data analysis

Include details of all equipment and of the gas concentrations in the calibration cylinder. The Protocol should include a clear instruction of what you did so that it could be faithfully reproduced by someone else reading your description. Ensure a logical sequence and progression to your instructions. Describe the infection control efforts made when handling both blood and the face masks. Describe Subject welfare. In the data analysis section mention both Excel and both techniques used for measuring the ‘V slope’ and the lactate threshold methods of identifying the metabolic threshold.

3. Results (20%).

In this section you should present your results in appropriate form. Tables and/or graphs are appropriate. For this lab report you are required to plot a graph showing V̇O2 and V̇CO2 relative to heart rate and or work-rate and showing your estimate of the location of the Ventilatory Threshold. Also plot a graph which shows the lactate data points and mark on it your estimate of the lactate threshold. This should be labelled appropriately with label on the x and y axis and a title shown below the graph. Do not use a title above a graph.

Some suggestions for additional information:

 State the heart rate and the V̇O2 at which the Ventilatory Threshold occurred.

 State the percentage of the V̇O2 at which the threshold occurred (the V̇O2 at threshold as a % of the V̇O2max; i.e. 38 ml∙kg-1∙min-1 as a % of 58 ml∙kg-1∙min-1 = 65%).

 Are the Ventilatory Threshold and the Lactate thresholds similar (in terms of heart rate)?

 Calculate the relative V̇O2max of your subject so that you can easily compare it to published data

4. Discussion (25%)

Here you should comment on your results and explain why they occurred. Refer back to the same journal articles you used in the Introduction and compare your findings to them. With reference to your subject’s height, weight, age and training status suggest why their values may differ from published values you have found. You may wish to briefly mention again the relevance of the threshold measurement to athletes and suggest how the threshold value could be therefore improved with training with reference to literature (you must support all of the statements that you make).

5. References (10%)

Give a minimum of TEN scientific sources you used to prepare your work. None of these should be internet based and they should all be cited in text. Use Harvard style when citing references (see http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/services/sas/library-services/referencing/referencing.cfm).

Suggested References

James, D.V., Sandals, L. E., Draper, S. B. (2007) ‘Relationship between maximal oxygen uptake and oxygen uptake attained during treadmill middle-distance running’, Journal of Sports Science, 25 (8), pp.851-858.

Keir, D,A,. Fontana, F.Y., Robertson, T.C., Murias, J.M., Paterson, D.H., Kowalchuk, J.M., Pogliaghi S. (2015) Exercise Intensity Thresholds: Identifying the Boundaries of Sustainable Performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 47(9):1932-40.

McGehee, J., Tanner C., and Joseph Houmard (2005) ‘Comparison of methods for estimating the lactate threshold’ Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(3), 553–558.

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