Be able to follow the sperm from where it is produced to the point where it exits the male.

Textbook chapter: 26.

1. Describe the general function of the reproductive system.
2. Describe the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
3. Describe the gross anatomy of the ducts, organs, and glands of the male reproductive system. Define their functions.
4. Be able to follow the sperm from where it is produced to the point where it exits the male.
5. Describe the histology of the testes, including both hormone and sperm producing cells.
6. Describe the role of testosterone.
7. Describe the gross anatomy of the ducts, organs, and glands of the female reproductive system. Define their functions.
8. Be able to follow the sperm from where it enters the female to the point where it fertilizes the ova.
9. Describe the histology of the ovaries, including both hormone and ova producing cells.
10. Describe the role of progesterone and estrogen.

Be able to recognize the following structures.

scrotum vagina
testes ovary
seminiferous tubules primare follicle, mature follicle (follicular cells)
prostate uterine(fallopian) tubes
seminal vesicle uterus (myometrium, endometirum,. perimetrium)
ductus deferens secondary oocyte
sperm mammary glands
penis mammary ducts

The Reproductive System

Textbook chapter: 26.

Resources:

Use these web resources to supplement your studies of lecture notes and objectives.

Textbook (sample quizzes, labeling)-select a chapter number in pull down menu.

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Lecture Notes

Functions:

1) production of gametes sperm (spematogenesis) and ova (oogenesis)
2) regulation of reproductive structure functions via hormone production
3) fertilization
4) development and nourishment of embryo and fetus
5) birth

I. Male Reproductive structures

A. Testes
– male gonads descended from the pelvic cavity in the scrotum

– composed of seminiferous tubules which are the sites of spermatogenesis
-also contains Interstitial cells which produce testosterone
B. Scrotum
– a sac of skin and underlying fascia suspending and supporting
the testes and epididymis

Scrotum allows temperature regulation to promote Sperm development
C. Epididymis

– in the scrotum wraps around the posterior side of each testis, receives sperm from seminiferous tubules

– the site of sperm maturation, become motile
D . Vas/Ductus Deferens

– two tubes transporting sperm from each epididymis to the ejaculatory duct (in prostate)

– peristaltic waves of smooth muscle move the sperm along

E . Ejaculatory Ducts

– form as the vas deferens and seminal vesicles meet, within the prostate
F. prostatic urethra
Semen enters the prostatic urethra just prior to ejaculation

F. Penile Urethra
-tube carrying ejactulated semen (sperm and fluids from glands) out of body, through penis.
G. Penis

male copulatory organ

H. Glands
1. Seminal Vesicles

– lie along the posterior aspect of the urinary bladder between the urinary bladder and the rectum, superior to the prostate, emptying into the ends of the vas deferens

– produce 60% of semen components, including fructose to provide nutrition to sperm cells.

2. Prostate Gland

immediately inferior to the urinary bladder, surrounds the proximal portion of the urethra

– produces weakly acidic semen, and contains a chemical to activate sperm.

Helpful web link/activity
II. Male reproductive physiology

A. Spermatogenesis

-specific division process to produce male gamete (sperm).
-male variety of meiosis-body cell chromosome count (46) is halved to 23.

B. Hormone regulation
-Testosterone, produced by Interstitial cells, promotes spermatogenesis; and, maintains male secondary sexual structures

III The Female Reproductive Structures
A. Ovaries – female

– the ovaries are near the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity

– sites of oogenesis, production of ova
– gametes develop in follicles, progesterone and estrogen are produced by cells of these follicles

B. Uterine tube or Oviduct ( or Fallopian tubes)
-tube not physically connecting to ovaries

– collects ova, after ovulation, and transfers it towards uterus.
-site of fertilization

C. Uterus
a) Body

– the broad ligaments, double folds of the peritoneum, attach it to either side of the pelvic cavity
layers in uterine body-
a) endometrium – inner layer supplies nutrients to embryo/fetus, stimulated by Estrogen and Progesterone
b) myometrium – smooth muscle ejects fetus during birth, stimulated by Oxytocin
c) perimetrium = visceral peritoneum

– the site of most embryonic and all fetal development

b) Cervix is opening (dilation and effacement during birth)

D. Clitoris
– anterior to the urethral orifice

– cylindrical mass of erectile tissue promoting sexual stimulation

E. Vagina
– a muscular tube extending from the cervix of the uterus to its opening

– passagewy for semen and menstrual flow
– female copulatory organ
– birth canal

F. Mammary Glands or Breasts

– lie over the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles

1) alveoli (mammary, lactiferous) glands

– milk secreting glands, stimulated by Prolactin.

2) lactiferous ducts and sinuses
– carries milk from glands to the exterior, movement stimulated by Oxytocin

Helpful web link/activity

IV. Female reproductive physiology
A. Oogenesis
-division process that is interrupted so ova does not have half normal body cell chromosome count.
-division proceeds after fertilization by sperm.

result is fertilized ovum (46 chromosomes, half from dad, half from mom).

B. Hormone regulation
Ovarian cycle results from cyclical changes of Estrogen and Progesterone
These hormones promote proliferation and maintenance (respectively) of endometrium, both maintain female second sexual characteristics.

Menstrual (uterine) cycle results in endometrium proliferates in preparation for implantation of fertilized ovum, but is sloughed off if ovum does not implant.

-also involves ovarian cycle where levels of estrogen and progesterone ready endometrium or cause sloughing.

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